This condition tends to affect older individuals, particularly females, but some environmental factors — such as a lack of vitamin D — can also contribute to its development.

A new study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health — whose findings appear in JAMA Network Open — now suggests that poor air quality is associated with a lower bone density among aging populations.

In the study, researchers analyzed data regarding the bone health and living conditions of 3,717 participants, including 1,711 women, from 28 villages in the proximity of the city of Hyderabad in India. The investigators used estimates of outdoor exposure to air pollution, referring to the presence of carbon and fine particulate matter in the air. These are minuscule particles that come, for instance, from car exhausts. These particles remain airborne for a long time and infiltrate the human body through the lungs.

In addition to this, the researchers also took into account self-reported data from questionnaires asking the participants what kind of fuel they used when cooking.

The team went on to see if it could establish a link between air quality and bone health, looking specifically at measurements of bone density in the lumbar spine and left hipbones of the participants. They found that individuals who frequently experienced ambient air pollution — especially by way of fine particles — also seemed to have lower bone mass levels.

The researchers hypothesize that the link between poor air quality and poor bone health could be due to "the oxidative stress and inflammation caused by air pollution."

The researchers also noted that the participants' exposure to airborne fine particulate matter was 32.8 micrograms per cubic meter each year, which far exceeds the limits recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) of 10 micrograms per cubic meter.

As many as 58% of the participants reported using biomass fuel for cooking, yet the researchers found no link between this practice and poor bone health.

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